A healthy immune system has the ability to identify and eliminate cancer cells using cytotoxic T cells circulating in the blood.
T cells become active when T-cell receptors bind to antigens on malignant target cells.
Activated T cells then eliminate these malignant target cells through a variety of mechanisms.
B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL, is a rare and aggressive form of cancer caused by malignant B cells in the blood and bone marrow.
These malignant B cells have developed sophisticated mechanisms to evade detection and elimination by T cells.
Now there is an immuno-oncology platform that changes the way we fight cancer.
Amgen’s proprietary Bispecific T-cell Engager, or BiTE®, technology bridges endogenous T cells to cancer cells, activating the cytotoxic potential of T cells to fight cancer.
This versatile technology has the ability to potentially target any tumor-specific antigen.
BLINCYTO® is the first and only BiTE® molecule approved for use in patients with B-cell precursor ALL.
BLINCYTO® targets malignant and benign B cells via the CD19 cell surface antigen while simultaneously engaging the patient’s own T cells through the CD3 antigen.
BLINCYTO® activates the T cell, resulting in the formation of a synapse between the T cell and malignant B cell.
The activated T cell then fights the malignant B cell by releasing perforin and granzymes to induce apoptosis.
The activated T cells persist in the bloodstream, allowing for serial lysis of multiple target cells.
Sustained activation of T cells results in local proliferation and enhanced polyclonal expansion of memory T cells, helping to fight cancer cells.
BLINCYTO® is a first-in-class immuno-oncology treatment that can help patients around the world with B-cell precursor ALL.
• BLINCYTO® (blinatumomab) is indicated for the treatment of CD19-positive B-cell precursor
acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first or second complete remission with minimal residual
disease (MRD) greater than or equal to 0.1% in adult and pediatric patients.
• BLINCYTO® is indicated for the treatment of relapsed or refractory CD19-positive B-cell
precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adult and pediatric patients.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
WARNING: CYTOKINE RELEASE SYNDROME and NEUROLOGICAL TOXICITIES
• Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS), which may be life-threatening or fatal, occurred in patients receiving BLINCYTO®. Interrupt or discontinue BLINCYTO® and treat with corticosteroids as recommended.
• Neurological toxicities, which may be severe, life-threatening or fatal, occurred in patients receiving BLINCYTO®. Interrupt or discontinue BLINCYTO® as recommended.
BLINCYTO® is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to blinatumomab or to any component of the product formulation.
Warnings and Precautions
• Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS): CRS, which may be life-threatening or fatal, occurred in 15% of patients with R/R ALL and in 7% of patients with MRD-positive ALL. The median time to onset of CRS is 2 days after the start of infusion and the median time to resolution of CRS was 5 days among cases that resolved. Closely monitor and advise patients to contact their healthcare professional for signs and symptoms of serious adverse events such as fever, headache, nausea, asthenia, hypotension, increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST), increased total bilirubin (TBILI), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The manifestations of CRS after treatment with BLINCYTO® overlap with those of infusion reactions, capillary leak syndrome, and hemophagocytic histiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome. If severe CRS occurs, interrupt BLINCYTO® until CRS resolves. Discontinue BLINCYTO® permanently if life-threatening CRS occurs. Administer corticosteroids for severe or life-threatening CRS.
• Neurological Toxicities: Approximately 65% of patients receiving BLINCYTO® in clinical trials experienced neurological toxicities. The median time to the first event was within the first 2 weeks of BLINCYTO® treatment and the majority of events resolved. The most common (≥ 10%) manifestations of neurological toxicity were headache and tremor. Severe, life‐threatening, or fatal neurological toxicities occurred in approximately 13% of patients, including encephalopathy, convulsions, speech disorders, disturbances in consciousness, confusion and disorientation, and coordination and balance disorders. Manifestations of neurological toxicity included cranial nerve disorders. Monitor patients for signs or symptoms and interrupt or discontinue BLINCYTO® as outlined in the PI.
• Infections: Approximately 25% of patients receiving BLINCYTO® in clinical trials experienced serious infections such as sepsis, pneumonia, bacteremia, opportunistic infections, and catheter-site infections, some of which were life-threatening or fatal. Administer prophylactic antibiotics and employ surveillance testing as appropriate during treatment. Monitor patients for signs or symptoms of infection and treat appropriately, including interruption or discontinuation of BLINCYTO® as needed.
• Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS), which may be life-threatening or fatal, has been observed. Preventive measures, including pretreatment nontoxic cytoreduction and on-treatment hydration, should be used during BLINCYTO® treatment. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of TLS and interrupt or discontinue BLINCYTO® as needed to manage these events.
• Neutropenia and Febrile Neutropenia, including life-threatening cases, have been observed. Monitor appropriate laboratory parameters (including, but not limited to, white blood cell count and absolute neutrophil count) during BLINCYTO® infusion and interrupt BLINCYTO® if prolonged neutropenia occurs.
• Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: Due to the possibility of neurological events, including seizures, patients receiving BLINCYTO® are at risk for loss of consciousness, and should be advised against driving and engaging in hazardous occupations or activities such as operating heavy or potentially dangerous machinery while BLINCYTO® is being administered.
• Elevated Liver Enzymes: Transient elevations in liver enzymes have been associated with BLINCYTO® treatment with a median time to onset of 3 days. In patients receiving BLINCYTO®, although the majority of these events were observed in the setting of CRS, some cases of elevated liver enzymes were observed outside the setting of CRS, with a median time to onset of 19 days. Grade 3 or greater elevations in liver enzymes occurred in approximately 7% of patients outside the setting of CRS and resulted in treatment discontinuation in less than 1% of patients. Monitor ALT, AST, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and TBILI prior to the start of and during BLINCYTO® treatment. BLINCYTO® treatment should be interrupted if transaminases rise to > 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) or if TBILI rises to > 3 times ULN.
• Pancreatitis: Fatal pancreatitis has been reported in patients receiving BLINCYTO® in combination with dexamethasone in clinical trials and the post-marketing setting. Evaluate patients who develop signs and symptoms of pancreatitis and interrupt or discontinue BLINCYTO® and dexamethasone as needed.
• Leukoencephalopathy: Although the clinical significance is unknown, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes showing leukoencephalopathy have been observed in patients receiving BLINCYTO®, especially in patients previously treated with cranial irradiation and antileukemic chemotherapy.
• Preparation and administration errors have occurred with BLINCYTO® treatment. Follow instructions for preparation (including admixing) and administration in the PI strictly to minimize medication errors (including underdose and overdose).
• Immunization: Vaccination with live virus vaccines is not recommended for at least 2 weeks prior to the start of BLINCYTO® treatment, during treatment, and until immune recovery following last cycle of BLINCYTO®.
• Benzyl Alcohol Toxicity in Neonates: Serious adverse reactions, including fatal reactions and the “gasping syndrome,” have been reported in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates born weighing less than 1500 g, and early preterm neonates (infants born less than 34 weeks gestational age) who received intravenous drugs containing benzyl alcohol as a preservative. Early preterm VLBW neonates may be more likely to develop these reactions, because they may be less able to metabolize benzyl alcohol. Use the preservative-free preparations of BLINCYTO® where possible in neonates. When prescribing BLINCYTO® (with preservative) for neonatal patients, consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources including BLINCYTO® (with preservative), other products containing benzyl alcohol or other excipients (e.g., ethanol, propylene glycol) which compete with benzyl alcohol for the same metabolic pathway. Monitor neonatal patients receiving BLINCYTO® (with preservative) for new or worsening metabolic acidosis. The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which serious adverse reactions may occur in neonates is not known. The BLINCYTO® 7-Day bag (with preservative) contains 7.4mg of benzyl alcohol per mL
• Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Based on its mechanism of action, BLINCYTO® may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to the fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with BLINCYTO® and for 48 hours after the last dose.
• The most common adverse reactions (≥ 20%) are pyrexia, infusion-related reactions, infections (pathogen unspecified), headache, neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia.
Dosage and Administration Guidelines
• BLINCYTO® is administered as a continuous intravenous infusion at a constant flow rate using an
infusion pump which should be programmable, lockable, non-elastomeric, and have an alarm.
• It is very important that the instructions for preparation (including admixing) and administration provided in the full Prescribing Information are strictly followed to minimize medication errors (including underdose and overdose).
Please see full Prescribing Information, including Boxed WARNINGS and Medication Guide, for BLINCYTO®.